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DOT Rule 49 CFR Part 40 Section 40.191

Subpart I—Problems in Drug Tests

§ 40.191 What is a refusal to take a DOT drug test, and what are the consequences?
 
(a) As an employee, you have refused to take a drug test if you:
 
(1) Fail to appear for any test (except a pre-employment test) within a reasonable time, as determined by the employer, consistent with applicable DOT agency regulations, after being directed to do so by the employer. This includes the failure of an employee (including an owner-operator) to appear for a test when called by a C/TPA (see §40.61(a));
 
(2) Fail to remain at the testing site until the testing process is complete. Provided that an employee who leaves the collection site before the testing process commences (see § 40.63(c) or § 40.72(e), as applicable) for a pre-employment test is not deemed to have refused to test. The collector is not required to inform an employee that the failure to remain at the collection site is a refusal. If an employee leaves prior to the completion of the testing process, per § 40.355(i) the employer must decide whether the employee's actions constitute a refusal; 
 
(3) Fail to provide a specimen for any drug test required by this part or DOT agency regulations. Provided that an employee who does not provide a specimen because he or she has left the testing site before the testing process commences (see § 40.63(c) or § 40.72(e), as applicable) for a pre-employment test is not deemed to have refused to test. The collector is not required to inform an employee that the failure to remain at the collection site is a refusal. If an employee leaves prior to the completion of the testing process, per § 40.355(i) the employer must decide whether the employee's actions constitute a refusal; 
 
(4) In the case of a directly observed or monitored urine collection in a drug test, fail to permit the observation or monitoring of an employee's provision of a specimen (see §§ 40.67(m) and 40.69(g)); 
 
(5) Fail to provide a sufficient amount of specimen when directed, and it has been determined, through a required medical evaluation, that there was no adequate medical explanation for the failure (see § 40.193(d)(2)); 
 
(6) Fail or decline to take an additional drug test the employer or collector has directed you to take (see, for instance, § 40.197(b) as applicable); 
 
(7) Fail to undergo a medical examination or evaluation, as directed by the MRO as part of the verification process, or as directed by the DER under § 40.193(c). In the case of a pre-employment drug test, the employee is deemed to have refused to test on this basis only if the pre-employment test is conducted following a contingent offer of employment. If there was no contingent offer of employment, the MRO will cancel the test; 
 
(8) Fail to cooperate with any part of the testing process (e.g., refuse to empty pockets when directed by the collector, behave in a confrontational way that disrupts the collection process, fail to wash hands after being directed to do so by the collector, fail to remove objects from mouth, fail to permit inspection of the oral cavity, or fail to complete a rinse when requested); 
 
(9) For an observed urine collection, fail to follow the observer's instructions to raise your clothing above the waist, lower clothing and underpants, and to turn around to permit the observer to determine if you have any type of prosthetic or other device that could be used to interfere with the collection process; 
 
(10) Possess or wear a prosthetic or other device that could be used to interfere with the collection process; or 
 
(11) Admit to the collector or MRO that you adulterated or substituted the specimen.
 
(b) As an employee, if the MRO reports that you have a verified adulterated or substituted test result, you have refused to take a drug test.
 
(c) As an employee, if you refuse to take a drug test, you incur the consequences specified under DOT agency regulations for a violation of those DOT agency regulations. The consequences specified under DOT agency regulations for a refusal cannot be overturned or set aside by an arbitration, grievance, State court or other non-Federal forum that adjudicates the personnel decisions the employer has taken against the employee.  
 
(d) As a collector or an MRO, when an employee refuses to participate in the part of the testing process in which you are involved, you must terminate the portion of the testing process in which you are involved, document the refusal on the CCF (including, in the case of the collector, printing the employee's name on Copy 2 of the CCF), immediately notify the DER by any means (e.g., telephone or secure fax machine) that ensures that the refusal notification is immediately received. As a referral physician (e.g., physician evaluating a “shy bladder” condition or a claim of a legitimate medical explanation in a validity testing situation), you must notify the MRO, who in turn will notify the DER.
 
(1) As the collector, you must note the actions that may constitute a refusal in the “Remarks” line (Step 2), and sign and date the CCF. The collector does not make the final decision about whether the employee's conduct constitutes a refusal to test; the employer has the sole responsibility to decide whether a refusal occurred, as stated in § 40.355(i), the employer has a non-delegable duty to make the decision about whether the employee has refused to test.
 
(2) As the MRO, you must note the refusal by checking the “Refusal to Test” box in Step 6 on Copy 2 of the CCF, checking whether the specimen was adulterated or substituted and, if adulterated, noting the adulterant/reason. If there was another reason for the refusal, check “Other” in Step 6 on Copy 2 of the CCF, and note the reason next to the “Other” box and on the “Remarks” lines, as needed. You must then sign and date the CCF.
 
(e) As an employee, when you refuse to take a non-DOT test or to sign a non-DOT form, you have not refused to take a DOT test. There are no consequences under DOT agency regulations for refusing to take a non-DOT test.
 
[65 FR 79526, Dec. 19, 2000, as amended at 66 FR 41953, Aug. 9, 2001; 68 FR 31626, May 28, 2003; 71 FR 49384, Aug. 23, 2006; 73 FR 35974, June 25, 2008; 75 FR 59108, September 27, 2010; 88 FR 27647, May 2, 2023]
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Last updated: Monday, June 12, 2023