(a) If an employee does not provide a sufficient amount of specimen to permit a drug test (i.e., 45 mL of urine in a single void, or 2mL oral fluid in a single sampling, as applicable) you, as the collector, must provide another opportunity to the employee to do so. In accordance with the employer's instructions, this can be done using the same specimen type as the original collection or this can be done by a collector qualified to use an alternate specimen collection for this purpose.
(i) If you proceed with an alternate specimen collection, discard the insufficient specimen and proceed with the next specimen collection.
(ii) If you proceed with an alternate specimen collection, discard the CCF for the insufficient specimen and begin a new CCF for the next specimen collection with a notation in the remarks section of the new CCF.
(b) (1) As the collector, you must do the following when continuing with a urine specimen collection under this section:
(i) Discard the insufficient specimen, except where the insufficient specimen was out of temperature range or showed evidence of adulteration or tampering (see § 40.65(b) and (c)
(ii) Urge the employee to drink up to 40 ounces of fluid, distributed reasonably through a period of up to three hours, or until the individual has provided a sufficient urine specimen, whichever occurs first. It is not a refusal to test if the employee declines to drink. Document on the Remarks line of the CCF (Step 2), and inform the employee of the time at which the three-hour period begins and ends.
(iii) If the employee refuses to make the attempt to provide a new urine specimen or leaves the collection site before the collection process is complete, you must discontinue the collection, note that fact on the “Remarks” line of the CCF (Step 2), and immediately notify the DER of the conduct as provided in § 40.191(e)(1)
; the employer decides whether the situation is deemed to be a refusal.
(iv) If the employee has not provided a sufficient specimen within three hours of the first unsuccessful attempt to provide the specimen, you must discontinue the collection, note the fact on the “Remarks” line of the CCF (Step 2), and immediately notify the DER. You must also discard any specimen the employee previously provided, including any specimen that is “out of temperature range” or shows signs of tampering. In the remarks section of the CCF that you will distribute to the MRO and DER, note the fact that the employee provided an “out of temperature range specimen” or “specimen that shows signs of tampering” and that it was discarded because the employee did not provide a second sufficient specimen.
(2) As the collector, you must do the following when continuing with an oral fluid specimen collection under this section:
(i) If the employee demonstrates an inability to provide a specimen after 15 minutes of using the collection device, and if the donor states that he or she could provide a specimen after drinking some fluids, urge the employee to drink (up to 8 ounces) and wait an additional 10 minutes before beginning the next specimen collection (a period of up to one hour must be provided, or until the donor has provided a sufficient oral fluid specimen, whichever occurs first). If the employee simply needs more time before attempting to provide an oral fluid specimen, the employee is not required to drink any fluids during the one-hour wait time. It is not a refusal to test if the employee declines to drink. The employee must remain at the collection site, in a monitored area designated by the collector, during the wait period.
(ii) If the employee has not provided a sufficient specimen within one hour of the first unsuccessful attempt to provide the specimen, you must discontinue the collection, note the fact on the “Remarks” line of the CCF (Step 2), and immediately notify the DER.
(3) Send Copy 2 of the CCF to the MRO and Copy 4 to the DER. You must send or fax these copies to the MRO and DER within 24 hours or the next business day.
(c) As the DER, if the collector informs you that the employee has not provided a sufficient amount of specimen (see paragraph (b) of this section), you must, after consulting with the MRO, direct the employee to obtain, within five days, an evaluation from a licensed physician, acceptable to the MRO, who has expertise in the medical issues raised by the employee's failure to provide a urine (see paragraph (b)(1) of this section) or oral fluid (see paragraph (b)(2) of this section) sufficient specimen, but not both. The evaluation and MRO determination required by this section only applies to the oral fluid or the urine insufficient specimen that was the final methodology at the collection site. (The MRO may perform this evaluation if the MRO has appropriate expertise.)
(1) As the MRO, if another physician will perform the evaluation, you must provide the other physician with the following information and instructions:
(i) That the employee was required to take a DOT drug test, but was unable to provide a sufficient amount of specimen to complete the test;
(ii) The consequences of the appropriate DOT agency regulation for refusing to take the required drug test;
(iii) That the referral physician must agree to follow the requirements of paragraphs (d) through (g) of this section.
(d) As the referral physician conducting this evaluation, you must recommend that the MRO make one of the following determinations:
(1) A medical condition has, or with a high degree of probability could have, precluded the employee from providing a sufficient amount of specimen. As the MRO, if you accept this recommendation, you must:
(i) Check “Test Cancelled” (Step 6) on the CCF; and
(ii) Sign and date the CCF.
(2) There is not an adequate basis for determining that a medical condition has, or with a high degree of probability could have, precluded the employee from providing a sufficient amount of specimen. As the MRO, if you accept this recommendation, you must:
(i) Check the “Refusal to Test” box and “Other” box in Step 6 on Copy 2 of the CCF and note the reason next to the “Other” box and on the “Remarks” lines, as needed.
(ii) Sign and date the CCF.
(e) For purposes of this paragraph, a medical condition includes an ascertainable physiological condition (e.g., a urinary system dysfunction in the case of a urine test or autoimmune disorder in the case of an oral fluid test), or a medically documented pre-existing psychological disorder, but does not include unsupported assertions of “situational anxiety” or dehydration.
(f) As the referral physician making the evaluation, after completing your evaluation, you must provide a written statement of your recommendations and the basis for them to the MRO. You must not include in this statement detailed information on the employee's medical condition beyond what is necessary to explain your conclusion.
(g) If, as the referral physician making this evaluation in the case of a pre-employment, return-to-duty, or follow-up test, you determine that the employee's medical condition is a serious and permanent or long-term disability that is highly likely to prevent the employee from providing a sufficient amount of specimen for a very long or indefinite period of time, you must set forth your determination and the reasons for it in your written statement to the MRO. As the MRO, upon receiving such a report, you must follow the requirements of § 40.195, where applicable.
(h) As the MRO, you must seriously consider and assess the referral physician's recommendations in making your determination about whether the employee has a medical condition that has, or with a high degree of probability could have, precluded the employee from providing a sufficient amount of specimen. You must report your determination to the DER in writing as soon as you make it.
(i) As the employer, when you receive a report from the MRO indicating that a test is cancelled as provided in paragraph (d)(1) of this section, you take no further action with respect to the employee. If the test reason was 'random', the employee remains in the random testing pool.
[88 FR 27647, May 2, 2023]