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U.S. Department of Transportation U.S. Department of Transportation Icon United States Department of Transportation United States Department of Transportation


The Bureau offers several programs to provide project finance assistance to State, local, and private project sponsors. These are customizable credit instruments that reduce project costs and increase flexibility. With our credit programs, State and local project sponsors have the ability to accelerate delivery of needed infrastructure projects, often in partnership with private sector investors. 

Application information can be found on each of the program pages linked below.

Public-Private Partnerships (P3s)

For many transportation agencies in the U.S. public-private partnerships (P3s) offer an opportunity to tap new financing sources and transfer certain project delivery risks. These partnerships differ from standard procurement practice wherein the public sponsor controls each phase — design, construction, finance, operation and maintenance – of the project’s lifecycle. In a P3, a single private entity (which may be a consortium of several companies) assumes responsibility for multiple phases, accepting long-term risks in return for prospective rewards.

Transportation Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (TIFIA)

The Transportation Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (TIFIA) program provides credit assistance for qualified projects of regional and national significance. Many surface transportation projects - highway, transit, railroad, intermodal freight, airport and port access - are eligible for assistance. Eligible applicants include state and local governments, transit agencies, railroad companies, special authorities, special districts, and private entities. The TIFIA credit program is designed to fill market gaps and leverage substantial private co-investment by providing supplemental and subordinate capital. Each dollar of Federal funds can provide up to $15 in TIFIA credit assistance and support up to $50 in transportation infrastructure investment.

Railroad Rehabilitation & Improvement Financing (RRIF)

Under this program, the Department is authorized to provide direct loans and loan guarantees up to $35 billion to finance development of railroad infrastructure. Not less than $7 billion is reserved for projects benefiting freight railroads other than Class I carriers. Direct loans can fund up to 100 percent of a railroad project with repayment periods of up to 35 years (in some cases, 75 years) and interest rates equal to the cost of borrowing to the government. Eligible borrowers include railroads, state and local governments, government-sponsored authorities and corporations, joint ventures that include at least one railroad, and limited option freight shippers who intend to construct a new rail connection.

Private Activity Bonds (PABs)

Providing private developers and operators with access to tax-exempt interest rates lowers the cost of capital significantly, enhancing the investment prospects for transportation infrastructure. Increasing the involvement of private investors in highway and freight projects generates new sources of money, ideas, and efficiency. The law limits the total amount of such bonds to $30 billion and directs the Secretary of Transportation to allocate this amount among qualified facilities. The $30 billion in exempt facility bonds is not subject to the state volume caps.