Section 26.67 What Rules Determine Social and Economic Disadvantage?
The statutes governing the DBE program continue to state that members of certain designated groups are presumed to be both socially and economically disadvantaged. Therefore, the Department is not adopting comments suggesting that one or both of the presumptions be eliminated from the DBE rule. While the rule does specify that applicants who are members of the designated groups do have to submit a signed certification that they are, in fact, socially and economically disadvantaged, this requirement should not be read as making simple ``self-certification'' sufficient to establish disadvantage. As has been the case since the beginning of the DBE program, the presumptions of social and economic disadvantage are rebuttable.
The Department is making an important change in this provision in response to comments about how to rebut the presumption of economic disadvantage. Recipient comments unanimously said that recipients should collect financial information, such as statements of personal net worth (PNW) and income tax returns, in order to determine whether the presumption of economic disadvantage really applies to individual applicants. Particularly in the context of a narrowly tailored program, in which it is important to ensure that the benefits are focussed on genuinely disadvantaged people (not just anyone who is a member of a designated group), we believe that these comments have merit. While charges by opponents of the program that fabulously wealthy persons could readily participate under part 23 have been exceedingly hyperbolic and inaccurate (e.g., references to the Sultan of Brunei as a potential DBE), it is appropriate to give recipients this tool to make sure that non-disadvantaged persons do not participate.
For this reason, part 26 requires recipients to obtain a signed and notarized statement of personal net worth from all persons who claim to own and control a firm applying for DBE certification and whose ownership and control are relied upon for DBE certification. These statements must be accompanied by appropriate supporting documentation (e.g., tax returns, where relevant). The rule does not prescribe the exact supporting documentation that should be provided, and recipients should strive for a good balance between the need for thorough examination of applicants' PNW and the need to limit paperwork burdens on applicants. For reasons of avoiding a retroactive paperwork burden on firms that are now certified, the rule does not require recipients to obtain this information from currently certified firms. These firms would submit the information the next time they apply for renewal or recertification. The final rule's provisions on calculating personal net worth are derived directly from SBA regulations on this subject (see 13 CFR Sec. 124.104(c)(2), as amended on June 30, 1998).
One of the primary concerns of DBE firms commenting about submitting personal financial information is ensuring that the information remains confidential. In response to this concern, the rule explicitly requires that this material be kept confidential. It may be provided to a third party only with the written consent of the individual to whom the information pertains. This provision is specifically intended to pre-empt any contrary application of state or local law (e.g., a state freedom of information act that might be interpreted to require a state transportation agency to provide to a requesting party the personal income tax return of a DBE applicant who had provided the return as supporting documentation for his PNW statement). There is one exception to this confidentiality requirement. If there is a certification appeal in which the economic disadvantage of an individual is at issue (e.g., the recipient has determined that he or she is not economically disadvantaged and the individual seeks DOT review of the decision), the personal financial information would have to be provided to DOT as part of the administrative record. The Department would treat the information as confidential.
Creating a clear and definitive standard for determining when an individual has overcome the economic disadvantage that the DBE program is meant to remedy has long been a contentious issue. In 1992, the Department proposed to use a personal net worth standard of $750,000 to rebut the presumption of disadvantage for members of the designated groups. In 1997, the Department proposed a similar idea, though rather than use the $750,000 figure, the SNPRM asked the public for input on what the specific amount should be. Finally, as discussed in detail above, the issue of ensuring that wealthy individuals do not participate in the DBE program was a central part of the 1998 Congressional debate.
Public comment on both proposals was sharply divided. Roughly equal numbers of commenters thought $750,000 was too high as thought it was too low. Commenters proposed figures ranging from $250,000 to $2 million. Others supported the $750,000 level, which is based on the SBA's threshold for participation in the SDB program (it is also the retention level for the 8(a) program). One theme running through a number of comments was that recipients should have discretion to vary the threshold depending on such factors as the local economy or the type of firms involved. Some comments opposed the idea of a PNW threshold altogether or suggested an alternative approach (e.g., based on Census data about the distribution of wealth).
Others commented that rebutting the presumption did not go far enough, pointing out that the only way to ensure that wealthy people did not participate in the program was for the threshold to act as a complete bar on the eligibility of an individual to participate in the program. Congress appears to share this concern. While they differed on the effectiveness of past DOT efforts, both proponents and opponents of the program agreed that preventing the participation of wealthy individuals was central to ensuring the constitutionality of the DBE program.
The Department agrees and, in light of the comments and the intervening TEA-21 debate, is adopting the clearest and most effective standard available: when an individual's personal net worth exceeds the $750,000 threshold, the presumption of economic disadvantage is conclusively rebutted and the individual is no longer eligible to participate in the DBE program. The Department is using the $750,000 figure because it is a well established and effective part of the SBA programs and is a reasonable middle ground in view of the wide range of comments calling for higher or lower thresholds. Using a figure any lower, as some commenters noted, could penalize success and make growth for DBEs difficult (since, for example, banks and insurers frequently look to the personal assets of small business owners in making lending and bonding decisions). Operating the threshold as a cap on eligibility for all applicants also serves to treat men and women, minorities and non-minorities equally.
When a recipient determines, from the PNW statement and supporting information, that an individual's personal net worth exceeds $750,000, the recipient must deem the individual's presumption of economic disadvantage to have been conclusively rebutted. No hearing or other proceeding is called for in this case. When this happens in the course of an application for DBE eligibility, the certification process for the applicant firm stops, unless other socially and economically disadvantaged owners can account for the required 51 percent ownership and control. A recipient cannot count the participation of the owner whose presumption of economic disadvantage has been conclusively rebutted toward the ownership and control requirements for DBE eligibility.
There may be other situations in which a recipient has a reasonable basis (e.g., from information in its own files, as the result of a complaint from a third party) for believing that an individual who benefits from the statutory presumptions is not really socially and/or economically disadvantaged. In these cases, the recipient may begin a proceeding to rebut the presumptions. For example, if a recipient had reason to believe that the owner of a currently-certified firm had accumulated personal assets well in excess of $750,000, it might begin such a proceeding. The recipient has the burden of proving, by a preponderance of evidence, that the individual is not disadvantaged. However, the recipient may require the individual to produce relevant information.
It is possible that, at some time in the future, SBA may consider changing the $750,000 cap amount. The Department anticipates working closely with SBA on any such matter and seeking comment on any potential changes to this rule that would be coordinated with changes SBA proposes for Federal procurement programs in this area.
Under part 23, recipients had to accept 8(a)-certified firms (except for those who exceeded the statutory gross receipts cap). The SNPRM proposed some modifications of this requirement. Recipients were concerned that in some situations information used for 8(a) certification could be inaccurate or out of date. They noted differences between 8(a) and DBE certification standards and procedures. They asked for the ability to look behind 8(a) certifications and make their own certification decisions.
In response to these comments, the Department is providing greater discretion to recipients. Under part 26, recipients can treat 8(a) certifications as they do certifications made by other DOT recipients. A recipient can accept such a certification in lieu of conducting its own certification process or it can require the firm to go through part or all of its own application process. Because SBA is beginning a certification process for firms participating in the small and disadvantaged business (SDB) program, we will treat certified SDB firms in the same way. If an SDB firm is certified by SBA or an organization recognized by SBA as a certifying authority, a recipient may accept this certification instead of doing its own certification. (This does not apply to firms whose participation in the SDB program is based on a self-certification.) We note that this way of handling SBA program certifications is in the context of the development by DOT recipients of uniform certification programs. If a unified certification program (UCP) accepts a firm's 8(a) or 8(d) certification, then the firm will be certified for all DOT recipients in the state.
People who are not presumed socially and economically disadvantaged can still apply for DBE certification. To do so, they must demonstrate to the recipient that they are disadvantaged as individuals. Using the guidance provided in Appendix E, recipients must make case-by-case decisions concerning such applications. It should be emphasized that the DBE program is a disadvantage-based program, not one limited to members of certain designated groups. For this reason, recipients must take these applications seriously and consider them fairly. The applicant has the burden of proof concerning disadvantage, however.