Federal Funding Application Process
The process of acquiring Federal funding differs by program type (e.g., grants, loans) and by agency. However, competitive funding programs (including competitive grants, loans, and loan guarantees) often follow similar processes. The following information identifies some key activities by funding type for those applying for assistance.
Grants: Tips and Resources
The following tips and resources may provide further insight to applicants throughout the discretionary grant funding application process.
The Office of Management and Budget developed Grants.gov to provide a centralized location for grant seekers to find and apply for Federal funding opportunities. The website houses up-to-date information on over 1,000 grant programs and details on the Federal grant application process. For more information on the grants funding process and supporting resources, visit the Grants.gov Grants 101 page and review the Grant Lifecycle Timeline.
For funding programs overseen by the USDOT, the DOT Navigator provides assistance to find and apply for grants. The website contains documentation and resources about the variety of funding programs the DOT offers with a focus on programs recently created by legislative or executive action. The website also contains pages dedicated to specific modes and transportation priorities.
Notices of Funding Opportunities (NOFOs) and Funding Opportunity Announcements (FOAs) are formal announcements of Federal funding availability issued by the awarding office. Announcements provide details on eligible applicants and activities, evaluation criteria, funding priorities, and submission deadlines. Obtain and read the NOFOs or FOAs for funding programs when considering applying.
Many Federal grant programs require the applicant to provide some of the project funding; this is referred to as either “required match” or “cost share.” Applicant match requirements vary widely by program. As an example, a funding opportunity may include the following phrase: “The Federal share of project costs under this program is limited to 80 percent.” In this case, if the total project cost is $100,000, the Federal agency will provide no more than $80,000, with at least $20,000 coming from the grant recipient. Most grants with match requirements require the recipient to prove it has the necessary funds to provide the match amount before the grant is awarded. In some cases, recipients are allowed to use other Federal funding or in-kind resources (e.g., staff time) as a project match, or they can use another grant to cover the cost share requirements. It is important to note that the same funding typically cannot be used as a match for more than one Federal grant. Take note of the funding match requirements for programs prior to applying for grants.
The Biden-Harris Administration established the Justice40 Initiative with a goal to direct at least 40 percent of the benefits of certain Federal funding programs to disadvantaged communities. The initiative is intended to bring resources to communities most impacted by climate change, pollution, and environmental hazards, and to address gaps in transportation infrastructure and public services. The initiative allows Federal departments to prioritize projects that align with Justice40 goals and meaningfully engage local community leaders. Several tools, including the USDOT’s Equitable Transportation Community (ETC) Explorer and the Council on Environmental Quality’s Climate and Economic Justice Screening Tool (CEJST), exist to help grant applicants identify historically underserved and overburdened communities.
Buy America Provision
The use of Federal funds may trigger domestic preference requirements to purchase certain products from American manufacturers. The specific requirements that apply (typically referred to as Buy America or Buy American) may vary depending on the source of the Federal funds. Federal funding programs will typically include direction on compliance with Buy America in the grant NOFO or in the details of a loan agreement. In February 2023, FHWA issued a Build America, Buy America implementation plan for EV charging equipment. The plan incentivizes companies to invest in domestic production of EV charging components, while providing a transition period for companies to onshore their supply chains. The plan requires that Federally funded EV chargers be assembled in the United States and must contain at least 55 percent domestic content (on a cost-basis) by July 2024.
Urban Area Definitions
Many Federal funding programs differentiate urban and rural areas to determine application requirements or establish funding suballocations and priorities. There are many different definitions of “rural” and “urban,” so it is important to read the terms of the NOFO or check with the granting agency. Often, there may be differing application requirements for urban and rural areas. The USDOT Rural Eligibility Map provides information on rural and non-rural definitions and locations for different USDOT programs.
Some urban areas may receive priority consideration for certain grant programs if they meet requirements related to community poverty or marginalization. For example, some programs consider whether an urban area is an Area of Persistent Poverty or Historically Disadvantaged Community as part of the evaluation process. Federal agencies establish their own criteria and priorities, so applicants should consult the NOFO of their desired program to determine if it includes language around disadvantaged communities and consult with the program contact if they are unsure of their eligibility.
Tribal Transportation Self-Governance
Tribes are eligible for numerous Federal funding programs. USDOT’s Tribal Transportation Self-Governance Program provides federally recognized Tribes and Tribal organizations with greater control, flexibility, and decision-making authority over Federal funds used to carry out Tribal transportation programs, functions, services, and activities in Tribal communities. Under the program, Federal funds awarded to a Tribe or Tribal organization will be transferred in advance to the Tribe or Tribal organization in accordance with the terms of a funding agreement to carry out Tribal transportation programs and activities.
Financing Programs: Tips and Resources
The following tips and resources may provide further insight to applicants throughout the exploration of innovative finance techniques and the financing application process.
Applicants may be eligible to take advantage of multiple Federal or State loan programs or other innovative finance tools. Financing options may vary by location depending on State regulations. These options include the following:
- Loans: A disbursement of funds by a lender to a borrower under a contract that requires repayment of such funds with or without interest.
- Loan Guarantees: A contingent liability created when the government assures a private lender who has made a loan to a borrower that the lender will be repaid to the extent of a guarantee in the event of default by the debtor.
- State Infrastructure Banks: Revolving loan funds established by States to finance transportation projects. Where established, State Infrastructure Banks may lend to public and private project sponsors.
- Bonds: A unit of corporate debt issued by companies or governments to finance projects, including a fixed or variable interest rate paid to bondholders.
- Community Development Financial Institutions: Private financial institutions dedicated to delivering responsible, affordable lending to help low-income, low-wealth, and other disadvantaged people and communities.
- Tax Credits: An amount of money that taxpayers (individuals or businesses) can subtract from taxes owed to their government.
- Public-Private Partnerships (P3s): Contractual agreements between a public agency and a private entity that allow for greater private participation in the delivery of projects. In transportation projects, this participation typically involves the private sector taking on additional project risks such as design, construction, finance, long-term operation, and traffic revenue.
- Grant Anticipation Revenue Vehicles (GARVEEs): Securities (debt instruments) issued when monies are anticipated from a specific source to advance the upfront funding of a particular need. In the case of transportation finance, the GARVEE repayment source is expected Federal aid grants.
- Transportation Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act program (TIFIA): The TIFIA program offers credit assistance for large-scale infrastructure projects of national significance. Credit assistance can include subordinated loans to fill the gap between existing financing through the private market and total project costs, as well as loan guarantees and lines of credit. The program is designed to leverage private investments in the national transportation system.
- Value Capture: Strategy to capture the value property owners realize through transportation and other public improvements through special assessments and taxation on those properties. Refer to the FHWA Center for Innovative Finance Support for more information on value capture.
Contacting a Federal loan or finance program office prior to applying or submitting a letter of inquiry can help applicants better determine their eligibility for the program, any pre-requisites to application, and potentially even assist in project scoping. In addition to individual program offices, the FHWA Center for Innovative Finance can help applicants understand a broad range of innovative financing options relevant to their project. Gathering input on financing options early in project scoping can help applicants determine how to structure their projects and any potential barriers to entry in a funding program based on project characteristics or State legislation.
Some Federal programs allow applicants to finance all or a portion of project costs using loans. The maximum amount of a loan or the proportion of project costs allowed to be financed through each program varies widely. For example, the TIFIA program can provide loans covering up to 33 percent of total anticipated costs for most projects. Loan programs may require that the recipient prove it is creditworthy and has other financing for the project in place prior to consideration for a loan. Take note of the maximum funding available through loan programs prior to applying for financing.
Post-Award Reporting and Servicing
Consider the reporting requirements for a loan or other innovative finance tool. General information about a program’s reporting requirements can be found on the respective program website. Adhere to the schedule for debt service on loans and other financing mechanisms. Note whether the program takes an ownership interest in any capital equipment which would have to be resolved if the equipment is taken out of service before the end of its useful life. Comply with relevant local, State, and Federal regulations. Contact the administering agency’s program point of contact for additional guidance throughout the post-award phase.
The Federal agencies discussed in this toolkit have field-level staff who are available to answer questions about the funding programs they administer. After identifying programs in the Federal Funding Programs section, prospective applicants may reach out to the field staff for additional help and resources. Below is the contact information for field staff at key agencies:
- FHWA Field Offices
- FTA Regional Offices
- DOE Vehicle Technologies Office/Technology Integration Regional Manager Contacts
- DOE Clean Cities Coalition Contact Directory
- EPA Regional Offices