On Sunday, March 11 at 2 a.m., much of the nation will move their clocks forward – as we “spring ahead” to Daylight Saving Time (DST).
Did you know that the DOT and DST have a shared history that began with the railroad industry?
In 1883, U.S. and Canadian railroads adopted a four-zone system to govern their operations and reduce the confusion resulting from some 100 conflicting locally established “sun times” observed in terminals across the country.
Local decisions on which time zone to adopt were usually influenced by the time used by local railroad companies. States and municipalities then adopted one of the four zones: Eastern, Central, Mountain, and Pacific Time zones.
In 1918, Congress passed the Standard Time Act (STA), marking federal oversight of time zones and establishing boundaries between the standard time zones in the continental United States so that more standardized railroad schedules could be published.
DOT assumed responsibility of administering the STA from the Interstate Commerce Commission, when the Department was established by a congressional act October 15, 1966.
Today, DOT oversees the nation’s time zones and the uniform observance of DST, including exercising authority that allows a state to change its official time zone.
Some states and U.S. territories do not observe DST, but its multiple benefits are still widely recognized.
You can read more about DST here.
Local decisions on which time zone to adopt were usually influenced by the time used by local railroad companies.
Christine M. Darden was born on September 10, 1942 in Monroe, North Carolina. Darden was the youngest of five children born to Noah Horace Sr., an insurance agent, and Desma Chaney Mann, an elementary school teacher. Darden attended Winchester Avenue High School and then transferred to Allen High School, a Methodist boarding school (formerly the Allen School for Negro Girls), in Asheville, North Carolina. She graduated from Allen High School in 1958 as the class valedictorian and received a scholarship to attend Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute.
In 1962, Darden received her B.S. degree in mathematics education and her teaching certification from Hampton Institute. She went on to earn her M.S. degree in applied mathematics from Virginia State College in 1967, and her D.Sc. degree in mechanical engineering with a specialty in fluid mechanics from George Washington University in 1983.
From 1962 to 1963, Darden was a mathematics instructor at Russell High School in Lawrenceville, Virginia. She continued teaching at Norcom High School in Portsmouth from 1964 to 1965. After completing her M.S. degree program, Darden became a data analyst for NASA at its Langley Research Center. In 1973, Darden was promoted to the position of aerospace engineer; and, in 1989, she was appointed as the technical leader of NASA’s Sonic Boom Group of the Vehicle Integration Branch of the High Speed Research Program where she was responsible for developing the sonic boom research program internally at NASA. She also maintained partnerships with and led an advisory team composed of representatives from industrial manufacturers and academic institutions.
In October of 1994, Darden became the deputy program manager of The TU-144 Experiments Program, an element of NASA’s High Speed Research Program; and, in 1999, she was appointed as the director in the Program Management Office of the Aerospace Performing Center at Langley Research Center where she was responsible for Langley research in air traffic management and other aeronautics programs managed at other NASA Centers. In addition, Darden served as technical consultant on numerous government and private projects, and she is the author of more than fifty publications in the field of high lift wing design in supersonic flow, flap design, sonic boom prediction, and sonic boom minimization.
Elizabeth “Bessie” Coleman was born on January 26, 1892 in Atlanta, Texas. She was one of 13 children to Susan and George Coleman, who both worked as sharecroppers. Her father, who was of Native American and African American descent, left the family in search of better opportunities in Oklahoma when Bessie was a child. Her mother did her best to support the family and the children contributed as soon as they were old enough.
At 12 years old, Coleman began attending the Missionary Baptist Church in Texas. After graduating, she embarked on a journey to Oklahoma to attend the Oklahoma Colored Agricultural and Normal University (Langston University), where she completed only one term due to financial constraints.
In 1915, at 23 years old, Coleman moved to Chicago, where she lived with her brothers and worked as a manicurist. Not long after her move to Chicago, she began listening to and reading stories of World War I pilots, which sparked her interest in aviation.
In 1922, a time of both gender and racial discrimination, Coleman broke barriers and became the world's first black woman to earn a pilot's license. Because flying schools in the United States denied her entry, she took it upon herself to learn French and move to France to achieve her goal. After only seven months, Coleman earned her license from France's well known Caudron Brother's School of Aviation.
Though she wanted to start a flying school for African Americans when she returned to the U.S., Coleman specialized in stunt flying and parachuting, and earned a living barnstorming and performing aerial tricks. In 1922, she became the first African-American woman in America to make a public flight.
On April 30, 1926, Coleman was tragically killed at only 34 years old when an accident during a rehearsal for an aerial show sent her plummeting to her death. Coleman remains a pioneer of women in the field of aviation.
Many of the world’s most famous inventors only produced one major invention that garnered recognition and cemented their prominent status. But Garrett Augustus Morgan (1877-1963), one the country’s most successful African-American inventors, created two – the gas mask and the three-position traffic signal.
Born in the last quarter of the nineteenth century to former slaves, Garrett A. Morgan was only formally educated to a sixth-grade level. Fortunately, like many great inventors, Morgan had an innate mechanical mind that enabled him to solve problems. And, unlike most other inventors, he also was a skilled entrepreneur.
After moving to Cleveland, Ohio, at the age of 16, Garrett Morgan’s business sense and strong work ethic led him to almost immediate success. He invented and patented the first chemical hair straightener, started his own sewing equipment repair business, and even established a newspaper – the Cleveland Call.
But Morgan’s most prolific accomplishments came in his role as an inventor. He received a patent for the first gas mask invention in 1914, but it wasn’t until two years later that the idea really took off. When a group of workers got stuck in a tunnel below Lake Erie after an explosion, Morgan and a team of men donned the masks to help get them out. After the rescue was a success, requests for the masks began pouring in.
Similarly, Garrett Morgan’s other famous invention – the three-position traffic signal – was also invented to help save lives. After witnessing an accident on a roadway, Morgan decided a device was needed to keep cars, buggies and pedestrians from colliding. His traffic signal was designed to stand on a street corner and notify vehicles and walkers whether they should stop or go. After receiving a patent in 1923, the rights to the invention were eventually purchased by General Electric.
Prior to his invention, most traffic signs in use had only two positions: stop and go. These manually operated two-position signals were an improvement over uncontrolled intersections, but because they allowed no interval between stop and go commands, collisions at busy intersections were common.
Morgan's signal was a T-shaped pole that featured three positions: stop, go, and an all-direction stop position. This third position halted traffic in all directions before vehicles were allowed to proceed on either of the intersection's roads. This feature not only made it less dangerous for motorists to travel through intersections but also allowed pedestrians to cross safely.
Morgan died on July 27m 1963 at the age of 83. His inventions are still used today. The original prototype of the three-position traffic signal is on display at the Smithsonian’s American History Museum and the Safety Hood is on display at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Rosa Parks remains one of the most recognizable figures of the Civil Rights era after she famously refused to give up her seat on a city bus in 1955. After defying a Montgomery, Alabama ordinance that required African Americans to sit in the back of the bus and comply with requests to move for white passengers, Parks was arrested. Following her arrest, the African American community organized a city-wide bus boycott that lasted close to a year and helped propel the nation’s Civil Rights movement.
The city’s discriminatory laws that prompted Parks’ act provide a visible contrast to today’s bus systems. Racial discrimination is illegal in current transportation laws. More than that, buses are now among the most equitable ways for people to access jobs, school, health care and other services.
In 1956, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of bus desegregation. In 1990, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) opened more doors by requiring public transportation to be accessible to all, prohibiting discrimination against people with disabilities. Now, virtually all U.S. transit buses are equipped with lifts and other features to ensure accessibility, and the ADA provides for accessible non-bus service for those who need it.
Buses provide a mode of transportation in rural and urban places. In rural America, buses link residents of rural towns to opportunities in job centers. They take tribal residents from reservations to jobs and services, sometimes over long distances.
Rosa Parks’ actions were pivotal in affirming the dignity of everyone using public transportation. After finishing her shift as a seamstress at a department store, Parks boarded a public bus and took a seat in the “colored” section at the back of the bus. As the bus began to fill with passengers, some white patrons were forced to stand, prompting the bus driver to ask Parks and other African American riders to give up their seats.
Parks was arrested when she didn’t comply. The local NAACP organized a bus boycott that lasted 381 days. When African Americans refused to take the bus, opting instead to carpool or walk, it impacted city finances and sparked a very public protest against segregation. A year later, and after some 42,000 people had participated, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of bus desegregation.
Today, buses are the most widely used form of public transportation in the United States, serving communities large and small. The Federal Transit Administration identified 1,186 fixed-route transit bus systems operating in 2016 – 775 in urban areas and 411 in rural areas – and an astonishing 5.3 billion bus trips.
FTA funds transit buses and bus facilities for more than 3,000 agencies nationwide, including a program specifically to support tribal transit. The agency’s support goes far toward ensuring that people can get to their jobs, take care of vital needs and take part in life’s activities.
Carmen E. Turner (1930- 1992)
In 1983, Carmen E. Turner made history as the first African-American woman to lead a major transit agency when she became general manager of the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA).
Her appointment to this position also reflected the overall strides being made by women at the time when it came to assuming key leadership roles in U.S. transportation.
Turner was born in Teaneck, New Jersey, but grew up in the nation’s capital. She began her government career in administrative support positions for various federal agencies. In 1974, she started working for the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Urban Mass Transportation Administration (the present-day Federal Transit Administration). Turner worked as a civil rights officer at UMTA until 1976, when U.S. Transportation Secretary William T. Coleman named her acting director of USDOT’s Office of Civil Rights.
The following year, Turner left USDOT to work at WMATA as its chief of administration. With her promotion to general manager six years later, she found herself running one of the nation’s largest transit systems. Turner earned widespread praise for her management of WMATA during a crucial time for the relatively young agency. Her accomplishments included overseeing a 40 percent expansion of the agency’s Metrorail service from 42 miles and 47 stations to 73 miles and 63 stations. Daily ridership likewise mushroomed in size.
Andrew Jackson Beard (1849-1921)
Andrew Jackson Beard lived an extraordinary life for a black American inventor. His invention of the Jenny automatic car coupler revolutionized railroad safety. Unlike the vast majority of inventors who never profit from their patents, he profited from his inventions.
Andrew Beard was born a slave on a plantation in Woodland, Alabama, in 1849, shortly before slavery ended.
He received emancipation at age 15 and he married at age 16. Andrew Beard was a farmer, carpenter, blacksmith, a railroad worker, a businessman and finally an inventor.
He grew apples as a farmer near Birmingham, Alabama for five years before he built and operated a flour mill in Hardwicks, Alabama. His work in agriculture led to tinkering with improvement for plows. In 1881, he patented his first invention, an improvement to the double plow, and sold the patent rights for $4,000 in 1884. His design allowed for the distance between the plow plates to be adjusted. That amount of money would be the equivalent of almost $100,000 today. His patent is US240642, filed on September 4, 1880, at which time he listed his residence at Easonville, Alabama, and published on April 26, 1881.
In 1887, Andrew Beard patented a second plow and sold it for $5,200. This patent was for a design that allowed the pitch of the blades of plows or cultivators to be adjusted.
The amount he received would be the equivalent of about $130,000 today. This patent is US347220, filed on May 17, 1886, at which time he listed his residence as Woodlawn, Alabama, and published on August 10, 1996. Beard invested the money he made from his plow inventions into a profitable real-estate business.
Beard received two patents for rotary steam engine designs. US433847 was filed and granted in 1890. He also received patent US478271 in 1892. There was no information found as to whether these were profitable for him.
In 1897, Andrew Beard patented an improvement to railroad car couplers. His improvement came to be called the Jenny Coupler. It was one of many that aimed to improve the knuckle coupler patented by Eli Janney in 1873 (patent US138405).
As a graduate of the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy (Kings Point ’79), Admiral Buzby understands the benefits of receiving a well-rounded maritime education because of the role that our commercial mariners play in our country’s security and overall economic success. In our global economy driven by trade through seaports, it is vital to educate and train our future maritime leaders. Our nation’s economic growth is dependent on the skills that we teach our mariners who protect our country’s marine borders and project American interests around the globe.
The U.S. military relies on U.S. flag vessels crewed by U.S. civilian mariners. In times of need, including humanitarian crises and natural disasters, America's commercial fleet and mariners provide sealift capacity to move troops and cargoes - sometimes at a moment’s notice. During Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom, over 95 percent of all military ocean-borne cargoes were moved on U.S.-flag vessels and government-owned sealift vessels crewed by U.S. citizen mariners. Our ports move more than two billion tons of freight every year, and our marine highways transport vital bulk cargoes and connect our domestic energy supply. By preparing the next generation with the maritime skills and knowledge they need, we are building a solid foundation to continue supporting our economy and defending our nation.
The FAA projects that by 2021, the fleet of hobbyist and commercial remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) will reach 4 million.
However, there are several technical, operational, and regulatory challenges related to integrating routine RPA operations in the National Airspace System (NAS). The most prominent obstacle is the inability of an RPA operator to see-and-avoid other aircraft, as required by federal regulations. Approved mitigations for the absence of a see-and-avoid capability, such as a ground-based visual observer or a visual observer onboard a chase aircraft, are not always practical and frequently limit the number and type of missions RPAs can execute.
“Without a human pilot onboard, every drone is by definition incapable of complying with the federal regulation to see-and-avoid other aircraft,” said Jason Glaneuski, Chief of the Air Traffic Management Systems Division at U.S. DOT’s Volpe Center. “Our team has spent several years tackling this challenge, researching solutions for drone operators that fulfill their operational needs, while also complying with FAA’s rigorous safety standards.”
The Volpe Center, in partnership with the U.S. Air Force (USAF), MITRE, and Raytheon, is developing a Ground-Based-Detect-and-Avoid (GBDAA) proof-of-concept (POC) capability that detects aircraft in the vicinity of an RPA by fusing aircraft position data from many types of ground-based radars and displaying those positions in real-time. This enables RPA operators to detect-and-avoid traffic at an equivalent level of safety as a manned aircraft pilot’s ability to see-and-avoid traffic. This work furthers the transportation and logistics enterprise by advancing capabilities to facilitate routine operations of RPA within the NAS.
Black History Month celebrates African-Americans’ contributions to American history and development. This month the U.S. Department of Transportation will feature biographies of African American inventors and pioneers whose courage, inspiration and determination helped transform the transportation industry of America.
Frederick McKinley Jones (May 17, 1893- February 21, 1961)
Frederick Jones was born in Ohio in 1893. After a challenging childhood, he taught himself mechanical and electrical engineering, inventing a range of devices relating to refrigeration, sound and automobiles.
Frederick Jones had talent for and an interest in mechanics. He read extensively on the subject in addition to his daily work, educating himself in his spare time. By the time he was twenty, Jones was able to secure an engineering license in Minnesota. He served in the U.S. Army during World War I where he was often called upon to make repairs to machines and other equipment. After the war, he returned to the farm.
It was on the Hallock farm that Jones educated himself further in electronics. When the town decided to fund a new radio station, Jones built the transmitter needed to broadcast its programming. He also developed a device to combine moving pictures with sound. Local businessman Joseph A. Numero subsequently hired Jones to improve the sound equipment he produced for the film industry.
Jones continued to expand his interests in the 1930s. He designed and patented a portable air-cooling unit for trucks carrying perishable food. Forming a partnership with Numero, Jones founded the U.S. Thermo Control Company. The company grew exponentially during World War II, helping to preserve blood, medicine and food. By 1949, U.S. Thermo Control was worth millions of dollars.